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Wednesday, May 3, 2017

Hemolytic-uremic syndrome

 It is a medical emergency and carries a 5–10% mortality; of the remainder, the majority recover without major consequences but a small proportion develop chronic kidney disease and become reliant on renal replacement therapy.Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (or haemolytic-uraemic syndrome), abbreviated HUS, is a disease characterized by hemolytic anemia (anemia caused by destruction of red blood cells), acute kidney failure (uremia), and a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia). It predominantly, but not exclusively, affects children. Most cases are preceded by an episode of infectious, sometimes bloody, diarrhea caused by E. coli O157:H7, which is acquired as a foodborne illness or from a contaminated water supply.

In most children with postdiarrheal HUS, there is a good chance of spontaneous resolution, so observation in a hospital is often all that is necessary, with supportive care such as hemodialysis where indicated. In children with neurological or other nonrenal involvement, and in adult cases, particularly when there is diagnostic uncertainty between HUS and TTP, plasmapheresis (plasma exchange) is the treatment of choice. This is generally performed daily until the platelet count is normal, using fresh fr frozen plasma as the replacement fluid for the patient's plasma which is removed. . HUS was first defined as a syndrome in 1955. Certain antibiotics can trigger further verotoxin production and thus increase the risk of HUS ...

tags:a  medical emergency,Hemolytic, HUS, medical emergency, Treatment, 

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